Until 1994, 9 per cent of collective agreements in Canada required the closed store, while 42.3 per cent needed the union shop and 39.2 per cent of the Rand formula. Only 3 percent used the agency shop, 6.5 percent had the store open.  In 1994, Alberta appointed a commission of inquiry to determine whether the adoption of laws on the U.S. “right to work” model would benefit the province. The committee strongly opposed the policy after Alberta employers strongly supported the union shop.  The Union`s in-shop clauses in Canadian collective agreements were applicable.  Article 17 of the Trade Union Act stipulates that the collective agreement is extended to all workers of the same type when 75% of this category of employer workers are already covered by the agreement. Although this appears to impose on union stores, the definition of “similar worker type” has proved too difficult in practice and Section 17 is rarely applied.  Trade union activity, also known as a post-entry closed store, is a form of union security clause. The employer agrees either to recruit only union members or to require all new employees who are not yet unionized to become members within a specified time frame.
 The use of trade union activities varies considerably from country to country, depending on the level of protection generally granted to trade unions. The status of trade union activity may also be questioned by its members. This is what happens when a majority of union employees vote in favour of terminating the union-shop in their contract – thus eliminating the most coveted form of union security. In the absence of a union shop or a closed store, the workstations are either assigned to workstations (which require employees to contribute union dues but do not join the union), or open shops (which do not require membership or fees). Workers in open businesses who benefit from the benefits that unions gain through collective bargaining without sharing costs are sometimes referred to as “parasites”. Union representatives who are the subject of a union agreement may ask the RBA to organize a “deautorization choice” so that all employees in the collective agreement unit can vote on whether the clause remains in effect. Such a procedure does not exist under the RLA. Under the NRL, the union can only require contributions to be paid for periods during which a worker is covered by a collective agreement with an existing enterprise contract.